Saturday, December 17, 2011

Dr. Matt Ray Presentation

1. Describe your observation of the common liquid in which he started his talk.

From what I observed from his PowerPoint, I learned that the water molecules in milk interact with the milk molecules in such a way that they deform the milk molecules when they collide with each other.

2. Dr. Ray explain two ways in which keep small particles from sticking to themselves and aggregating in to large masses. He explained that the surface area of these particles is important to maintain to feel the benefits of the nanosize. Explain those two methods that he described.

Charge stabilization
If I remember correctly, Dr. Ray referred to a school fight were one particle would as the ring of people in the first row. As more layers of ions were attracted to each other (more people), the outer layer of ions became less and less attracted to the particle (fight); until finally, the ions were so far out where they couldn’t “see” the particle. I believe this concept is called an Electrical double layer.

[Source from:]
Steric stabilization
            Again if I remember correctly, Dr. Ray used the dog on a leash theory where one dog would have the freedom of running around in a full circle, whereas the other dog would only have enough space to run around in a semi-circle fashion. The purpose of this connection was to show how using certain polymers, they can prevent other particles from attaching to each other. Going back to the example, the dog that only had the semi-circle to run around acted like the polymer in a way that the dog only had a limited area where it could bounce around and “attach” to something else.

[Source from:

Dr. Asthana Presentation

1.      What are grains and grain boundaries in a material? I suggest you focus on metals. Explain how material properties are affected by the size of these grains.

Grain-An individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or ceramic.
Grain boundary-The interface separating two touching grains having different crystallographic directions.
Material properties of a material are affected by their grain size in four areas: yield strength, tensile strength, creep strength, and bolt load retention.

[Source from:]

2.      How does one engineer or process materials to reduce the grain size? In particular, I would like for you to explore and then explain how single crystal silicon is produced for the solar industry.

Possible ways on how to reduce grain size: Rapidly cooling a molten metal, rolling or forging the metal, and adding an “inoculants” such as Titanium during the solidification process of a metal. During the production of monocrystalline silicon, there are two types silicon: Czochralski silicon and Float zone silicon.

The steps to creating Czochralski silicon include first melting “high purity polysilicon”. Then a single crystal silicon seed is put in a heated chamber on the surface of the Quartz Crucible and is slowly drawn up while at the same time being rotated. This process of the single silicon crystal being drawn up allows for the molten silicon to solidify. During the whole process, the quartz crucible gradually dissolves, which in turn releases a large quantity of oxygen in the melt. Most of this is turned into a gas, but the rest stays in the melt and is dissolved into the silicon. As the single silicon crystal is pulled from the melt, the impurity concentration in the solid part of the crystal will contain different impurities than the molten part of the crystal.

The steps for creating monocrystalline silicon with using the float zone method begin with placing a “high-purity polycrystalline rod and a monocrystalline seed crystal” vertically placed on top of each other (not touching) in a vacuum or “in an inert gaseous atmosphere”. From there, the ends of the rods closest to each other are partially melted with a radio frequency. Then, the monocrystalline seed is brought up to make contact with the molten part of the polycrystalline rod. Next, “a necking process is carried out to establish a dislocation free crystal for increasing the diameter”. As the polycrystalline rod moves along the “molten zone”, the molten silicon solidifies in which completes the float zone process.

[Source used:]

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Nano and Proteins

What is a MALDI?
MALDI stands for Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. The puropse of a MALDI is to analize biomolecules such as DNA or proteins. The machine analizes the protein by using mass spectrometry. The process first start off by aiming UV laser light on the matrix plate to create desorption on top of the matrix. From their, the matrix goes in a vacuum and the top layer on the matrix gets read by the detector.

(For more information on MALDI go to:

Different images of proteins:
(Images from
The sizes in lengh for each of the proteins are the following:
Microcystin-LR is 7 nm
Collagen is 30 nm
Asparaginyl is 294 nm

"Molecular capture with protein nanotechnology"
Advances in nanotechnology related to the use of proteins have shown protein nanotubes can be used as nanocaatalysts, bionanofilters, and nanocarriers of medication. As protein nanotubes can have different properties for the interior and exterior surfaces, they provide an advantage over nanospheres. So the exterior can be coated with a bio-friendly material and the inside of the nanotube can carry the medication to the desired locatin in the biological system. Another advantage of protein nanotubes are the longetivity in the blood stream is greater than current applications of drug delivery today.

For more information about this topic go to:

Invention References

Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

The article begins with providing an introduction to the different properties of Carbon nanotubes and how they could be used in the material science and medicinal chemistry fields. The articles continued on by saying that the discovery of carbon nanotubes has started further research in the nanotechnology field. Then the article went into more detail about describing the material, average length, and the arrangement of the carbon nanotubes. The different applications of carbon nanotubes are (as of the publication of this article): filters in polymer matrixes, molecular tanks, and biosensors. Some of the disadvantages they found while experimenting with carbon nanotubes are the lack of solubility, and the difficulty of manipulation in any solvent. However, some ways researchers have found on how to modify carbon nanotubes are by covalent attachment, and noncovalent adsorption.

Spinning continuous carbon nanotube yarns
An experiment was conducted to create a string of carbon nanotube yarn. The purpose of this was to create an efficient way to construct nanotube devices and structures. They found the longest yarn length they could construct was up to 30cm in length and 200um in width by drawing the yarn out from superaligned arrays of carbon nanotubes. They also created another experiment that involved placing one of the carbon nanotube yarns between light bulb filaments to measure the different properties when the light bulb was on. They found that after three hours, both the conductivity and the tensile strength increased. Some different applications of carbon nanotube yarns are bulletproof vests, and materials that block electromagnetic waves.

Water-Assisted Highly Efficient Synthesis of Impurity-Free Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Experiment conducted to demonstrate the efficient chemical vapor deposition synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes where the catalyst activity and lifetime are enhanced by water. The catalytic activity resulted in a large growth of very dense and vertically aligned nanotubes with the heights up to 2.5 mm. The carbon nanotubes could then be easily separated from the catalysts with carbon purity above 99.98%, and be patterned in highly organized intrinsic nanotube arrays. The purpose of the experiment was to address any of the critical problems that are currently in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

NANOSCALE HYDRODYNAMICS: Enhanced flow in carbon nanotubes

The purpose of this experiment was to create nanostructure that could mimic the selective transport and extraordinarily fast flow possible in biological cellular channels for a variety of different applications. From the results, they found the liquid flow through a membrane created out of carbon nanotubes is four to five times faster than what was previously predicted. The high flow rate resulted from an almost frictionless interface between the carbon nanotube walls. Other thoughts of creating the inside wall of the carbon nanotubes to be hydrophobic as to increase the velocity of the flow rate were also thought of. During the experiment, the only time researchers found a decrease in the flow rate of hydrogen-bonded fluids was after a few minutes because of the formation of “Bubbles” in the carbon nanotubes. They also noticed how the flip length affects the flow rate; as the slip length decreased, the solvents became more hydrophobic.


A hydrogen storage capacity of 4.2 wt. % was achieved reproducibly at room temperature under a modestly high pressure (about ten MPa) for a SWCNT sample of about 500mg that was soaked in hydrochloric acid and then heat-treated in vacuum. Moreover, 78% of the adsorbed hydrogen could be released under ambient pressure at room temperature. Other tests were conducted by changing the temperature, pressure and time to explore other options. The most successful test was on sample 2 was soaked in 37% HCL acid for 48 hours, rinsed with deionized water, and dried at 150 °C. The process of Semi-continuous hydrogen arc discharge technique was used for the synthesis of the SWCNT yielding at about 2g per hour through this process.

Opening carbon nanotubes with oxygen and implications for filling

Capped hollow carbon nanotubes can be modified into nanocomposite fibers by simultaneous opening of the caps (by heating in the presence of air and lead metal) and filling of the interior with an inorganic phase. The carbon nanotubes are oxidized in air for short period of time above 700 °C results in the etching away of the caps and the outer layers, starting from the cap region. The oxidation reaction follows an Arrhenius-type relation with an activation energy barrier of about 225kJ mol-1 in air. Heating of closed nanotubes with Pb3O4 in the air opens the carbon nanotubes at lower temperatures. However, open tubes are much more difficult to fill with inorganic materials than in one-step filling. But various other experiments might be possible in the inner nano-cavities of the open tubes such as studies of catalysis and of low-dimensional chemistry and physics.

Single-walled carbon nanohorns as drug carriers: adsorption of prednisolone and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis

Prednisolone (PSL) was adsorbed on oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) in ethanol–water solvent. The quantity of adsorbed PSL on the oxSWNHs was 0.35–0.54 g/g depending on the sizes and numbers of holes on the oxSWNHs. PSL was adsorbed on both the outside and the inside of the oxSWNHs and released quickly in a couple of hours and slowly within about one day, respectively. The released quantity in culture medium depended on the concentration of the PSL–oxSWNH, advising that PSL adsorbed on oxSWNHs and PSL in the culture medium were in equilibrium. The injection of PSL–oxSWNHs into the tarsal joint of rats with arthritis slightly slowed the progression of the arthritis. The analysis of the ankle joint, the anti-inflammatory effect of PSL–oxSWNHs was also observed.

Reviewing the Environmental and Human Health Knowledge Base of Carbon Nanotubes

The widespread projected use of carbon nanotubes makes it important to understand the potential harmful effects. In the article, they observed a range of results from some of the toxicology studies. As of this article, it shows some key points such as exposure to carbon nanotubes, and human and environmental health effects. In organisms, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity of carbon nanotubes depends on the natural physical and chemical characteristics of carbon nanotubes such as coating, length, and mass. Exposure situations would be useful when conducting toxicologic studies. Lastly, carbon nanotubes produce a toxic reaction when reaching the lungs in large quantity.

Toxicity issues in the application of carbon nanotubes to biological systems

The article explores the possible toxicologic implications of carbon nanotubes in Nano medicine. Even though one application works, that doesn’t mean the carbon nanotubes in biological systems because of inconsistent data on cytotoxicity and limited control over carbon nanotubes, both of which limit predictability. Also the lack of a toxicity database limits comparison between research results. To better understand the problems, researchers needed data from newer toxicity studies, with data suggesting post exposure regeneration, resistance, and mechanisms of injury in cells, by carbon nanotubes.

The behavioral and developmental physiology of nematocysts

Nematocysts are the nonliving secretions of specialized cells, which develop from stem cells. Nematocysts are what jellyfish use to capture prey and defend against predators. Of the different types of nematocysts, they fall into to four categories: those that pierce, ensnare, or adhere to prey, and those that adhere to the substrate. During development a collagenous cyst (which may contain toxins) forms a hollow thread, which becomes coiled as the nematocysts discharges. As the pattern is of the discharge is unknown, it appears to involve increases in capsule pressure upon release. Evidence exists that discharge begins as the jellyfish triggers an electrical signal caused from the transportation of stimuli received at the jellyfish’s tentacles. However, some researchers believe nematocyst independent effector hypothesis, excitatory and inhibitory neuronal input appears to regulate discharge.

Invention Work

Invention: Injection of medication via carbon nanotubes

Group members: Cody Lampley, Tim Ralston, Thomas Suiter, and Steven Warminski

Activities of each member:
Cody-describe the materials and processing needed to make invention, and costs for development, Pictures
Tim-address any regulations, and consumer acceptance
Thomas-address any safety/environmental concerns, and costs for development, Poster
Steven-issues/opportunities, how our invention utilizes nanotechnology, Pictures

Questions answered: Dec 8

Questions to address:
-what is the issue/opportunity you are trying to address? Describe the background and current efforts to address this issue/opportunity
-describe your invention that utilizes nanotechnology, describe what makes the invention based on nanotechnology
-describe the materials and processing that would be needed to make the invention
-address any safety/environmental concerns
-address costs for developing and producing
-address any regulations that may need to be addressed
-address the consumer acceptance of this nano-invention.

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Monday, October 31, 2011

Intro to invention Project

Possible topic ideas:
-Nanotubes for drug delivery
-Underwater breathing mask
-Solar Panels
-Hydrophobic surfaces
-Lasers or LEDs
-Self Assembling Structures